Product design is a multi-discipline process of designing the products.
Or Product design means, creating and selling a new product by a business to its customers.
In which usually involves marketing and technological researching, concept designing, prototype development, final product development and finally testing.
In simple words ”The activity in which ideas and need to give physical form, initially as a solution concept and then as a special configuration and arrangement of elements, materials and components.
A product is a machine or article obtained by the transmission of raw materials. It is essential to design the product before starting the manufacturing of a product.
The designer must concentrate on the functional requirement and external qualities by keeping his eye on the cost of manufacturing.
For a new or improved product, the ideas in the organization must include these considerations-
- Customer suggestions
- Suggestions by the production department
- Other products in the market and input from research and development department.
The ideas collected by giving the final shape in the form of product design by the teamwork of marketing & others.
Product design is the process of deciding on the unique characteristics and features of a company product. The product design defines a product characteristic such as appearance, materials, dimensions, tolerances and performance standards.
1. Steps in Product Design
- Examination of market needs
- Problems or needs analysis and the design
- Product design specification
- Concept development and prototype development
- Information on design
- Embodiment design
- Design for manufacture
- Design review and evaluation
- Post-production design and improvement
The product design starts with the analysis, for example, they gather general and specific materials which will help to figure out how their problem might be solved.
Next comes concept after analysing you have to define the product. This is where the key issue of the matter has to define.
And the last is a synthesis in this the designers here brainstorm different ideas, solutions for their design problem. and select that actually works than implement it. This is where the prototypes are built, the plan outlined in the previous step is realized and the product starts to become an actual object.
And the last stage in synthesis is evaluating. And testing the product and from there, they start improvements in the product.
- An idea for a new product may come from, customers, marketing, engineering, suppliers, competitors etc.
- Your product and services have to satisfy customers needs.
- The internal source is company employees at all levels.
- The external sources are customers, competitor, distributors. suppliers, and outsourcing.
- Idea development affects:
- Product quality
- Product cost
- Customer satisfaction
- Overall manufacturability
- Every business needs a structured process to check whether the new product fits with facility and labour skills and size of the market.
- Product screening tools such as contribution margin, break-even analysis, and return on sales are employed to decide on above factors.
Preliminary Design and Testing
- Technical specifications are developed, prototypes are built and testing is done
- Final design based on test results, facility, equipment, material & labour skills defined and suppliers.
3. Factor Considered for Product Design
Materials should be cheap and should withstand design requirements. Wastage is minimum during production materials. Materials should have good qualities easily workable and machineable.
Product design should provide with the facilities available in the factory as regards to equipment, labour and layout.
Use of Standardization:
The types of parts should be of minimum variety and easily available in the market or can be manufactured easily with the machines available.
The product should contain good in construction and attractive colours, styles, look, feel etc.
It should be able to perform its desired function with required accuracy, reliability and strength.
It should be easy to use, operate and cause minimum possible fatigue and give comfort.
It refers to the length of time a product can be used before it fails.
It refers to the ease of manufacture with minimum cost. The product design will contain a proper specification of tolerance, use of materials that can be easily provided and use of economic processes and equipment to produce the product quickly with lower cost.
The product operates with low noise, vibration, heat and other hazards. It operates with available skills.
Maintainability refers to the repair of a product once it has a failure. It required a high degree of maintainability so that the product can repair to use within a short time after it breaks. It should be easy to maintain and service.
The product should have required qualities, so a consumer can accept that product.If the quality is not good then the rejection is increased.
The value engineering should consider thoroughly to reduce the cost of production.
The simplification technique should adopt to avoid the complication of manufacturing.
When the product manufacture there is a problem of cost so the engineers should have the possibility of reducing the cost at the design stage.
The product must safe to use and should not cause any accident while using or should not cause any health hazards to the user.