Simple Vertical Boiler
A simple vertical boiler produces steam at low pressure and in small quantities. It is, therefore, used for low power generation or at places where space is limited. The construction of this type of boiler is shown in the figure.
Parts of Simple Vertical Boiler
The following are the construction parts of a simple vertical boiler:
- Ash pit
- Feed check valve
- Fire hole
- Cross tubes
- Fusible plug
- Water level indicator
- Cylindrical shell
- Pressure gauge
- Steam stop valve
- Safety valve
1. Ash Pit
The purpose of the ash pit is to collect fuel ash after burning the fuel.
The grate usually consists of cast iron bars which are spaced aside so that the air (required for combustion) can pass through them. It is a platform, in the combustion chamber, upon which the fuel is burnt.
3. Feed Check Valve
The purpose of a feed check valve is to regulate the flow of water from the feed pump to the boiler and to prevent the backflow of the water.
4. Fire Hole
The Firehole is hole provided at the air rear end of the boiler. The solid fuel is inserted and burned into the furnace through this hole.
5. Fire Box
The firebox is a type of a box in this the burning of the solid fuel takes place.
The handhole is provided in the shell opposite the ends of each cross tube for cleaning the cross tube.
7. Cross Tubes
One or more cross tubes are either fastened or flanged into the furnace to enhance the heating surface and improve water circulation.
8. Fusible Plug
The function of the fusible plug is to put-off the fire in the furnace of the boiler when the water level falls below an unsafe level and thus avoids the explosion, which may take place due to overheating of the tubes and the shell.
9. Water Level Indicator
It is an important device, which indicates the water level inside the boiler. It is a safety device upon which the safe working of the boiler depends.
10. Cylindrical Shell
The shell is in a vertical position and is attached to the bed of the furnace. The greater part of the shell is filled with water which also surrounds the furnace. The remaining part is the steam space. The shell can be about 1.25 m in diameter and 2.0 m in height.
11. Man Hole
The manhole is provided at the top of the shell to allow a man to enter into it to repair and to inspect the boiler from inside. It is also for cleaning the inner part of the boiler shell and the outer part of the combustion chamber and the chimney.
12. Pressure Gauge
The pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure of the steam inside the boiler. It is arranged in front of the boiler.
13. Steam Stop Valve
The function of a steam stop valve is to regulate the flow of the steam from within the boiler and to stop it completely when required.
14. Safety Valve
The safety valve is an instrument which prevents the boiler pressure from rising above its normal working pressure by automatically opening when the boiler pressure exceeds the normal working pressure, thus allowing excess steam to escape into the atmosphere until the pressure comes down to its normal value.
The chimney is located on the top portion of the boiler. It is employed to throw out the exhaust smoke and gases to the environment.
Working of Simple Vertical Boiler
It consists of a cylindrical shell surrounding a nearly cylindrical firebox. The firebox is slightly tapered towards the top to allow the ready passage of the steam to the surface. At the bottom of the firebox, is a grate. The firebox is provided with two or more inclined cross tubes F, F.
The inclination of the cross tubes is provided to improve the heating surface as well as to increase the circulation of water. An uptake tube passes from the top of the firebox to the chimney. The handhole is fitted opposite to the end of each water tubes for cleaning the depositions.
A manhole is located at the top portion of the boiler for a man to enter and to clean the boiler. A mudhole is provided at the bottom of the shell to remove the mud, that settles down. The space between the boiler shell and firebox is filled with water to be heated.
Advantages of Simple Vertical Boiler
The following are the advantages of a simple vertical boiler:
- The initial cost is low because of fewer parts.
- Maintenance cost is low.
- Working is simple.
- It is easy to install and replace.
- It occupies a small space on the ground.
- These type of boilers have water level tolerance.
Disadvantages of Simple Vertical Boiler
The following are the disadvantages of simple vertical boiler:
- The vertical design of this boiler limits its work in many places.
- Steam production is limited because of the limited great area.
- The impurities settle at the bottom and thus prevents the water from heating up.
- The boiler tube should be kept small to reduce height. As a result, most of the available heat is lost through the chimney, as the tubes have very little time to heat.
Application of Simple Vertical Boiler
The following are the application of a simple vertical boiler:
- Simple vertical boilers may have applications in railway locomotives, for example, a railway steam engine.
- Simple vertical boilers are employed in road vehicles such as steam wagons or steam lorry.
- The simple vertical boiler has a very well known application that is a steam tractor.
- The number of boats is particularly small which uses simple vertical boilers to power the engine.
- In some parts of the world ordinary vertical boilers are used in the steam donkey.
- Simple vertical boilers are also worked in steam cranes and steam shovels.
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