This article is about the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic is a branch of the science of energy and it transmits the heat from one form another form.
It mainly deals with the heat and works energy and their effect on properties of substances. The word thermodynamics comes from the Greek words, thermal means heat and dynamics means power.
Though the study of thermodynamics stated with the analysis of heat engine processes to improve the engine efficiency.
Today its scope is widened and there are important applications of thermodynamics principle outside the filed if heat engines.
Laws of thermodynamics
There are three laws of thermodynamics
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics
- Second law of thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
It states that
”when two bodies are in equilibrium with a third body, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
For example, if bodies AB in thermal equilibrium with body C, then A & B must be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
First law of thermodynamics
- It states that ”the heat and work are mutually convertible”. it is the law of conservation of energy.
- i.e, energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can convert into another form of energy.
- If a thermodynamic system is operating in a closed cycle, then the heat transfer is directly proportional to the work transfer.
- Mathematically according to this law, we have
- Q = Heat supplied
- W = external work done
- du = change in internal energy
Second law of thermodynamics
This law states.
” There is a definite limit to the amount of mechanical energy, which can be obtained from a given quantity of heat energy.”
It explained by using two different statements,
Clausius statement – This law of thermodynamics has been enunciated by Clausius in a slightly different form, as
“it is impossible for a self-acting machine working in a cyclic process, to transfer heat from a body at low temperature to a body at a high temperature without the external use or heat cannot flow from a cold body without use”.
Or in other words, the heat cannot flow itself from a cold body to hot body without the help of an external agency.
Kelvin-Planck statement – It states that
“It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose purpose is to convert all heat energy into work”.
In other words, no actual heat engine, working on a cycle process, can convert the heat energy supplied to it into mechanical work. It means that there is a degradation of energy in the process of producing mechanical work from heat. According to this statement, the second law of thermodynamics is sometimes called a law of degradation of energy.
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