In this article, you will learn what are different types of pumps? Explained with working, advantages, applications and pictures. Also, download the PDF file at the end of this article.
What is a Pump?
A pump is a device used to transfer different types of liquids or gases from one place to another by applying mechanical action. These devices typically convert electrical energy into hydraulic energy.
Generally, pumps are operated by a mechanism (reciprocating or rotary) and take energy to do mechanical work that moves the working fluid. This equipment is capable of lifting liquids from low to high levels and moving fluids from low to high-pressure areas.
Pumps are powered by means of several power sources, requiring a manual operation, electricity, engine, wind power, and more. Typically, pumps work by a vacuum in which air pressure forces the liquid out. All pumps work by creating an area of low pressure.
Pumps have been used for so long, so it’s no wonder that there are a wide variety of sizes and types available. So let’s discuss them one by one which is described below.
Types of Pumps
Following are the main types of pumps:
- Dynamic pump
- Centrifugal pump
- Axial flow
- Mixed flow
- Special effect pump
- Jet pump
- Electromagnetic pump
- Centrifugal pump
- Positive displacement
- Reciprocating pump
- Piston pump
- Plunger pump
- Diaphragm pump
- Rotary pump
- Screw pump
- Progressive cavity pump
- Gear pump
- Reciprocating pump
#1 Dynamic Pump
A dynamic pump uses centrifugal force to create velocity in the liquid. This velocity is further converted into pressure energy by decreasing the kinetic energy. This difference in pressure moves the fluid through the system.
It consists of a rotating impeller that creates a vacuum that moves the fluid. The impeller is held in the housing as it reduces the pressure at the inlet. This created motion drives the fluid outside the housing of the pump. At this stage, the pressure builds up to send it out for discharge. These are classified into two types.
#1 Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps are employed to move the fluid through the transfer of rotational energy from the rotor, this device is known as an impeller. The fluid enters the rotating impeller and is ejected by centrifugal force through the vane tip of the impeller.
This action of the impeller causes the fluid velocity and pressure to increase and also directs it towards the outlet. The pump casing is specially designed to compress fluid from the pump inlet, direct it into the impeller and control the fluid before discharging.
Pumps of this type are used for the water supply, fire protection systems, and beverage industries. These are also classified into three types, which are explained below.
#1 Axial Flow
The Axial flow type of pump basically consists of an axial impeller in a pipe. The propeller can be pushed directly into the pipe with help of an arranged electric motor or by a petrol/diesel engine that is mounted on the outside the pipe.
Axial flow pumps have an electronic rotor that handles the liquid along a path parallel to the axis of the pump. Thus, the fluid travels in a fairly straight path from the inlet pipe to the outlet pipe through the pump. These are used as compressors in turbo-jet engines.
#2 Mixed Flow
Mixed flow pumps are a combined version of both radial flow pumps and axial flow pumps. This pump is built with an impeller that sits and twists within the pipe, but the turning mechanism is essentially diagonal.
It uses centrifugal force to move the water along, accelerating it further with a push from the axial direction of the impeller. This action generates enough force to produce a high rate of flow. Pumps of this type are used for those requiring a high level of flow combined with a relatively low discharge pressure.
#3 Peripheral Pump
It is a closely-coupled centrifugal pump consisting of an impeller with a large number of radial vanes at the outer edges. These pumps require clean fluid because of the narrow clearance between the impeller vane and the pump casing, meaning any solids will clog the impeller.
The centrifugal force inside the rotor generates a flow between the impeller and the casing channel. The speed of the fluid and the impeller are basically the same. Therefore, the fluid flows from the covered channel to the impeller in a rotational path, and this cycle is repeated.
#2 Special Effect Pump
The kinetic pumps are also known as special effects pumps. This type of pump is one in which adding energy is still kinetic and velocity, but it employs other effects than centrifugal pumps. These pumps are further classified into two types.
#1 Jet Pump
These types of pumps are used to flow the fluid by a driving nozzle that converts the fluid pressure into a high-speed jet. To run a typical jet pump, it must be completely filled with water. When the system is primed, a centrifugal pump is used to push the water out.
Some of the water gets discharged while the rest is recirculated into the driveline. When water enters the nozzle, fluid is pushed through the venturi by generating a vacuum. Then, it draws the water up the well through a foot valve. As the water moves the venturi tube into the section line it comes with a greater pressure to force the water back into the pump impeller.
#2 Electromagnetic Pump
An electromagnetic pump is installed for moving mediums alike liquid metals, molten salts, brine, or other electrically conductive liquids by using electromagnetism energy. In this, a magnetic field is set at right angles to the direction in which the liquid moves and the current flows.
This generates an electromagnetic force that moves the liquid forward. These are commonly used to pump liquid metal through the cooling system. In addition, they are also seen in many wave soldering machines that use electromagnetic pumps to circulate the molten solder.
#2 Positive Displacement Pump
A positive displacement pump uses the reciprocating, rotary, or pneumatic motion to move the liquid through the pump. Here, the discharge of the fluid occurs in the form of pulses instead of a smooth liquid flow.
These types of pumps are operated by trapping a fixed amount of fluid into the pump chamber at an inlet valve and then it discharges through an outlet valve. These pumps are utilized based on their ability to work in high viscosity fluid at high pressure.
#1 Reciprocating Pump
Reciprocating pumps use the amount of water that is collected in an enclosed volume and is sent to discharge by applying pressure. Reciprocating pumps are used with low volume flow at high pressure.
This pump consists of a piston that moves back and forth in a fixed cylinder. The piston is fastened to the crankshaft via a connecting rod. This piston moves as the movement of the connecting rod are due to the movement of the crankshaft. This crankshaft connects to a motor which helps it to turn.
#1 Piston Pump
These are types of pumps where a high-pressure seal is connected with a piston. Piston pumps are used to move liquids or gases and they operate over a wide range of pressures. In this, the pumps can also deal with viscous media and media containing solid particles.
This pump works by means of a piston cup which provides the oscillating mechanism where the down-stroke causes the pressure difference. This action fills the pump chambers, where the up-stroke pumps the fluid out for the required application. It is usually used in systems that require high and consistent pressure.
#2 Plunger Pump
In this type of pump, the high-pressure seal is fixed and a cylindrical plunger slides through the seal. Plunger pumps use a plunger instead of the piston to move media through a cylindrical chamber.
These are operated by either steam-powered, pneumatic, hydraulic, or electric drives. These are often used in higher pressures, to move municipal and industrial sewage.
It uses a crank mechanism to create a reciprocating motion along an axle, which then creates pressure in the cylinder or working barrel to force the gas or fluid through the pump. These plunger pumps are used for drill cutting injection and chemical Injection.
#3 Diaphragm Pump
A diaphragm pump is a pump that uses a combination of reciprocating rubber, thermoplastic, or Teflon diaphragms. Diaphragm pump uses rubber membrane and works on air displacement principle.
In this type, the diaphragm is filled with one side in the fluid to be pumped (air or hydraulic fluid). As the volume of the chamber increases (the diaphragm moves upward), the pressure decreases, and fluid enters the chamber.
And when the pressure of the chamber is increased by the subsequently reduced volume (going down the diaphragm), the drawn fluid is drained out. Finally, the diaphragm moves again up, drawing fluid into the chamber, completing the cycle.
#2 Rotary Pump
It is also a type of positive displacement pump in which a fixed volume of fluid is moving with each revolution. These pumps can provide continuously delivered capacity regardless of pressure. Rotary pumps use rotating gears to move the fluid.
This revolving gear forms a liquid seal with the pump casing and makes suction at the pump inlet. The fluid now drawn into the pump is locked within the teeth of its rotating gears and transferred to the discharge. It certainly gives an advantage that it is a 100% oil-free operation.
#1 Screw Pump
These types of pumps use one or several screws to move the liquid along the screw axis. A screw pump generates pressure by using additional axial acceleration in the fluid within its clearance area. The simplest form of screw pump is the Archimedes screw.
Screw pumps operate using two rotating screw rotors, arranged in such a way that they rotate towards each other. This stores the gas in the space between the screws of their rotors. When the screw begins to rotate, this stored volume is reduced resulting in compressed gas that drives it toward the exhaust.
#2 Progressive Cavity Pump
These types of pumps are use rotor and stator assembly to transfer the fluid by means of the progress through the pump. This rotor is a helical-shaped worm part that rotates within the stator. The stator has a more ‘worm thread’ than the rotor and is made of a flexible material.
This arrangement allows for rotation of the stator and the condition of a transfer space that creates the progressive cavity needed for the fluid. These pumps are typically used in the metering of liquids and the pumping of viscous or shear-sensitive materials.
#3 Gear Pump
The gear pump uses gear meshing to pump the fluid by displacement. They are known as the most common types of pumps that are utilized for hydraulic power applications. As this gears rotate, they separate on the intake side of the pump which creates a vacuum and suction area for the fluid.
The fluid is moved by gears to the discharge side of the pump, where a meshing of gears replaces the fluid. This tighter clearance along with the speed of rotation of the gears effectively prevents fluid from leaking backward. The primary use of gear pumps is for pumping high viscosity fluids in chemical installations.
Closing It Up
As we already said, there are different types of pumps available in the market. I hope this article has helped you to know the main functionalities of each type of pump. The type of pump and selection mainly depends on our requirements.
So now, I hope I’ve covered everything about “types of pumps“. If you still have any doubts or questions on this topic, you can contact us or ask in the comments. If you like this article then please share it with your friends.
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