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30 Parts of Bicycle & Their Functions [Names & Pictures] PDF

In this article, you will learn the different parts of bicycle and their functions. All are explained with Names & Pictures.

You can also download the PDF file of this article at the end.

Bicycle Parts

Bicycles are pedal-driven, single-track vehicles with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other, powered by humans. A bicycle rider is prescribed as a cyclist or bicyclist. There are many parts to a bicycle, making it a fascinating machine.

Many people are unaware of those parts and simply point to a spot on their bicycle if something goes wrong. No matter your level of experience with bicycles, pointing isn’t always the best method of communication.

A bicycle consists of many different parts, and each part of the bicycle has a significant role. In order to understand all these bicycle parts, I have labeled some of the most important bicycle components in this article. Nonetheless, knowing the parts names of your bike will help when describing the problem. So let’s get started.

Checkout: List of Important Parts of Motorcycle & Their Functions [Names]

Parts of Bicycle

Following are the main parts of bicycle:

  1. Handlebar
  2. Headset
  3. Stem
  4. Shock absorber
  5. Brakes (Rim and Disc Brake)
  6. Front and Rear Brakes
  7. Fork
  8. Head tube
  9. Top tube
  10. Down tube
  11. Seat tube
  12. Seat stay
  13. Chain stay
  14. Seat post
  15. Saddle
  16. Cogset
  17. Jockey wheel
  18. Rear derailleur
  19. Front derailleur
  20. Chain
  21. Crankset
  22. Crank arm
  23. Pedal
  24. Tire
  25. Rim
  26. Spokes
  27. Hub
  28. Valve
  29. Fender
  30. Rear light

Read Also: A Complete List of Car Body Parts [Names & Functions]

#1 Handlebar

Handlebar - Parts of Bicycle
Image: istockphoto.com

A handlebar is a steering control mechanism for bicycles. It is a type of lever, usually attached to the steerer tube of the fork using a stem. It allows steering and provides an attachment point for controls and other accessories.

There are two types of bicycle handlebars, flat handlebars and drop handlebars. Flat handlebars are mostly installed on mountain bikes, hybrids, and urban bikes, while drop handlebars are used on road bikes.

#2 Headset

 Headset - Parts of Bicycle
Image: amazon.com

The headset consists of a set of components that help provide a rotatable interface between the fork and the head tube of a bicycle frame.

It consists of two cups in which the bearings are located which allows for low frictional contact between the bearing cup and the steerer. These bearings allow it to rotate so that as you rotate the handlebar, it rotates the front wheel.

#3 Stem


A stem is used to connect the handlebar to the steerer tube of a bicycle fork. It is usually fastened by a pinch bolt. The stem fits into the head tube and is height-adjustable. This is essentially the bit that sticks out from the head tube, and the handlebars run through it.

#4 Shock Absorber

Shock Absorber - Parts of Bicycle

It is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock stimulations. Shock absorbers are provided for bicycles with suspension. This device limits the rate at which a suspension is reabsorbed after an impact. Using shock absorbers, a shock is converted into another form of energy, which is then dissipated.

#5 Brakes (Rim and Disc Brakes)

Brakes (Rim Brake)
Brakes (Disc Brake)

As everyone knows, a bicycle brake is a device that reduces the speed of a bicycle or stops it from moving forward. Rim and disc brakes are operated by brake levers, which are generally installed on the handlebars.

Rim brakes are called because they are applied to the wheel rim. These are the most common because they are lightweight, cheap, and easy to maintain. Disc brakes are mounted on a metal disc that is attached to a hub. Compared to rim brakes, they are more robust and work better in wet conditions.

Read Also: Function of a Manual Transmission in Car

#6 Front and Rear Brakes

Usually, bicycles have brakes on both the front and rear sides.

a) Front Brakes

The front brakes are actuated by a brake cable, which includes the caliper and returns springs. This pushes a pair of brake pads against the pavement to slow down the front wheel.

b) Rear Brakes

The rear brake system is located near the rear hub. It is also actuated by a brake cable, including the caliper and return springs. Pressing the brakes forces a pair of brake pads against the sidewall to stop the bicycle.

#7 Fork

Fork  - Parts of Bicycle

The fork is an important part of the bicycle that connects the frame of a bicycle to its front wheel and handlebar. It consists of two tubes attached to the head tube and to each end of the front wheel hub. The steerer tube connects to the headset at the top of the fork.

#8 Head Tube

Bicycle Frame - Parts of Bicycle

The head tube is a tube originally found on the front frame of a bicycle. It helps to connect the handlebars to the wheel forks and many other components.

It consists of a headset that allows us to steer the front wheel through the handlebar. The head tube typically uses ball bearings to transmit steering movement to the forks.

#9 Top Tube

The top tube is the frame member that runs from the head tube to the seat tube. Also known as the cross-bar, this is the part where the rider steps over to mount the bicycle.

The top tube is parallel to the ground, but it may be bent at a slight angle. Whereas some bikes have a vertical angle or no top tube, making it easier to get on and off the bike.

#10 Down Tube

The down tube usually runs from the head tube to the bottom bracket or pedal. This tube is the longest and thickest tube in the frame, giving it its rigidity. This is where you’ll find a water bottle carrying cage and a bike brand logo.

Read Also: Various Types of Suspension Springs Used In Automobile Vehicles

#11 Seat Tube

The seat tube is also the main component of a bicycle frame. It’s a vertical tube that runs from the seat to the bottom bracket. It tilts back slightly, receives the seat post, and engages with the pedal mechanism.

The seat post is usually inserted into the seat tube. Saddle height is adjusted by raising or lowering how deep the seat post descends into the seat tube.

#12 Seat Post

Seat stays are also an essential part of a bicycle frame. These are small diameter tubes that run from the bottom of the saddle to the rear wheel hub. There is one rear dropout per seat stay, and each rear dropout is connected to a specific axle.

#13 Chain Stay

The chainstay is the pair of tubes on a frame that runs from the bottom bracket to the rear fork. These thin tubes run parallel to the ground from either side of the pedal to either side of the rear wheel. It is called chain stays because they run along the chain of the bicycle.

#14 Seat Post

Seat Post - Parts of Bicycle

The seat post is a tube that extends from the frame of the bicycle up to the saddle. It is fastened into the seat tube and moved up and down for the saddle height adjustment. It is usually made of metals like steel, aluminum, titanium, carbon fiber, or aluminum metal.

#15 Saddle

 Saddle - Parts of Bicycle

The saddle is the part of the bicycle on which the rider sits comfortably. It supports the rider’s weight on their sit bones and reduces the weight on their soft tissues. The saddle is usually attached to the seat post. Saddle height can be adjusted by telescoping the seat post in and out of the seat tube.

#16 Cogset


A cogset is a set of several sprockets attached to a hub on the rear wheel. Also known as a cassette, it works with the rear derailleur to provide multiple gear ratios to the rider. Some types of bicycles don’t have any gears, and those will have only one cog.

Cassettes come in two varieties, freewheel or cassette. In spite of their similar usage and appearance, cassettes and freewheels have significant mechanical differences and are not interchangeable.

#17 Jockey Wheel

Jockey Wheel

The jockey wheel helps to maintain tension in the chain and keeps it running smoothly when the rider changes gears. This largely guides the chain in the direction the derailleur makes a shift.

It is named the tension pulley because it helps to keep the chain tensioned in each gear combination. It’s unlikely that your bike has a jockey wheel if it doesn’t have gears unless it’s used as a chain tensioner.

#18 Rear Derailleur

Rear Derailleur

The rear derailleur is a lever that helps move the chain from one cassette cog to another on the rear wheel when the rider shifts gears. It is placed in the path of the loose part down the chain.

The rear derailleur usually works in conjunction with the jockey wheel. Keep in mind that the rear derailleur will only be present if your bike has gears.

#19 Front Derailleur

Front Derailleur
Image: wikipedia.org

The front derailleur is the part that moves the bike chain from chainring to chainring. As the rider clicks on the front shift lever, the front derailleur moves from side to side, carrying the chain along with it. So it can be seen on bikes with more than one front gear and more than one chainring.

#20 Chain


It is a roller chain that transfers power from the pedals to the rear wheel, thus pushing it to move forward. In the rear wheel, chain loops are found on the crankset chainrings, along the chainstays, and on the cassette sprockets.

A bicycle chain may be made from plain carbon steel or an alloy steel, but it may also be nickel-plated for aesthetic purposes or to prevent corrosion.

Read Also: How Does a Chain Drive Work in Bikes?

#21 Crankset

Crankset - Parts of Bicycle

As part of the drivetrain of a bicycle, it converts the reciprocating motion of the rider’s legs into rotational motion, which drives the rear wheel via the chain or belt. Simply put, it is the part of your bike that you pedal and move the bike forward.

It consists of chainring and crank arms that attach to the pedals. Cranksets are connected to frames by bottom brackets, to rear wheels by chains, and to riders by pedals.

#22 Crank Arm

Crank Arm

Crank arms are levers or rods that help connects the pedals by the bottom bracket. These are the part of the crankset typically made of aluminum or steel alloys, carbon fiber, or titanium. It is built for maximum strength and rigidity with minimum weight.

#23 Pedal

Pedal - Parts of Bicycle
Image: Indiamart.com

The pedal is the major part of the bicycle for forwarding movement. This is the part that the rider pushes with his foot to propel the vehicle forward. It consists of a spindle that threads into the end of the crank, and a body to which the foot rest is attached, which is designed to rotate freely on the bearings about the spindle.

There is a direct link between the cyclist’s foot and the crank, so the cyclist can rotate the bottom bracket spindle and propel the wheels of the bicycle by simply using the foot. There are broadly two types of pedals: flat pedals, in which you place only your feet upright, and clip-in pedals that you use to attach more securely to pedals with special shoes.

#24 Tire


Basically, the tire fits over the wheel rim of the bicycle. Its purpose is to provide the interface between the bike and the road surface. Tires provide an important source of suspension for absorbing road potholes.

In addition, it generates the lateral force needed for balancing and the longitudinal force needed for propulsion and braking. Tires are made of rubberized fabric and have a thick outer layer of rubber for the track. These tires are also employed on unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles, tandem bicycles, hand cycles, bicycle trailers, and trailer bikes.

#25 Rim


It is a circle made of steel metal that forms the outside of the wheel. The rim is the part of the wheel to which the tire is attached and often forms part of the braking mechanism. If the rims are used with brakes, the brake pads have a smooth surface along the edge to hold them.

Read Also: Understand The Different Types of Transmission System in Cars

#26 Spokes


The spokes serve as the connecting rod between the hub and the rim. The primary purpose of spokes is to transfer the load between the hub and the rim, which is caused by the weight of the rider, and bicycle.

It also applies tension equally in all directions, creating a strong and stable wheel that can support weight and the force applied to the pedal. Where the spoke connects to the rim, there are nuts known as nipples that are used to adjust the tension.

#27 Hub


A hub is the central part of a bicycle wheel that consists of an axle, bearings, and a hub shell. The hub shell has two metal flanges to which the spokes can be attached. An axle is a bar that attaches to the bicycle frame. Bearings are provided between the axle and the shell, allowing the shell to move freely around the axle.

#28 Valve


Although not the most attractive component on a bicycle, the valve is important because it allows air to be pumped into the tires, allowing the rider to ride. They are usually long and narrow and are found on the wheel rims.

Schrader and Presta valves are the two most commonly used types of valves. Presta valves are only used on bicycles, while Schrader valves can be found on cars and motorbikes.

#29 Fender


These are curved pieces of metal or plastic installed over the tires that capture and redirect the road spray emitted by the tires, keeping the rider relatively clean. Plus, it’s essentially a cover for the bike’s tires to protect the rider from the rain.

The fenders on your bicycle will prevent your back, your shoes, and your face from getting dirty from rain. Fenders aren’t a strict requirement for transport cyclists, but they are an incredibly functional accessory for any city rider.

#30 Rear Light

Rear Light

A bicycle light is an illumination device mostly attached to a bicycle. Its purpose is to improve the visibility of the bicycle and its rider to other road users in poor ambient lighting. In many countries, LED lights are the standard for rear lights.

The majority of rear lights use low-power lights primarily for viewing or as an emergency backup. Rear LED lights can operate on disposable coin-sized cells. A high-end rear light may have turn signal and brake light functions, which can be controlled by a handlebar control or a radio frequency.

Closing It Up

That’s it. Thanks for reading. I hope I have covered everything about this topic. If I missed something, or if you have any doubts, let me know in the comments. If you liked this article, please share it with your friends.

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About Yousef

He is a mechanical engineering student, he likes to write about engineering stuff and he is really interested in learning about new technology in machines.

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