Home » Manufacturing Machines » Press Machine and Types of Press Machine

Press Machine and Types of Press Machine

In this article, you will learn about what is press and the different types of press machines used in workshops.

What is a Press Machine

The press machine is a metal-forming machine tool. Which is designed to form or cut metal by applying mechanical force or pressure.

With the help of a press machine, you can form metal in any desired shape without the removal of chips. The presses are exclusively intended for mass production work.

The main advantage of using these types of machines is that they are the fastest and most efficient way to form any sheet metal into the finished product.

Read also: Shaper machine and types of shaper machine.

Types of Press Machine

The classification of different types of press machines is given below:

Classification based on mechanical type

Manual Press Machine

A manual press machine is operated by the operator, who exerts pressure on the machine using a handle. The machine’s structure is simple, consisting of a C-frame, punch, die, handle, and guide rail.

After a rotation of the handle, the ram goes up and down, exerting force via the lever to propel the punch in a linear motion. The manual press machine can be used for punching, blanking, and bending and is ideal for small runs and easy production.

Hydraulic Press Machine

The hydraulic press machine propels the ram through many hydraulic system components, with the oil cylinder typically mounted on the top beam. The hydraulic press machine has safety switches and sensing systems to guarantee operator safety.

The hydraulic press machine is more suited for producing complex workpieces because of its increased capacity, extended stroke, and customizable tonnage. It is suitable for forming, forging, punching, and other sheet metal operations.

Mechanical Press Machine

There are several types of mechanical press machines that process sheet metal using mechanical energy. Mechanical press machines are ideal for stamping and operate at a faster speed than hydraulic press machines.

However because force is applied at different rates, the mechanical press machine’s stroke is unsteady, which makes it inappropriate for producing complicated workpieces. Mechanical press machines enable quick and repeatable processes, lowering the price of mass production.

Pneumatic Press Machine

Compressed gas is used to operate pneumatic press machines. It is compressed and then expanded to raise the pressure inside the cylinder. There is no need to change the pressure in the pneumatic press machine because it remains constant throughout the entire stroke.

The working pressure of the pneumatic press machine must be maintained while it is in use; otherwise, the press’s stroke would be irregular, making process monitoring difficult. The pneumatic press machine is ideal for cutting, bending, punching, and extrusion.

Punching Press Machine

In sheet metal technology, it is used to punch workpieces, as well as to cut holes and mold sheet metal. Punches and dies used in punching machines are available in various sizes and shapes.

During the process, the punch is positioned beneath the plate and moves downward due to the machine’s pressure. There are two varieties of punching press machines: C-frame and H-frame.

Stamping Press Machine

Metal sheets are formed by the stamping press machine with the application of pressure. It has a work table and punches interlocking mechanisms that hold the plate in place while cutting or punching it into the desired shape.

Because of its vast size and complex operation, it requires a significant amount of power to drive. The workpiece that the stamping press machine produces could have imperfections on its surface and poorly cleaned punching holes.

    Classification based on the source of power

    Hand press or Ball press or Fly press

    Hand Press machine

    This type of press machine is the most simple of all presses and is operated by hand. The working details of the fly press machine are shown in the image below.

    The main parts of the hand press machines are a frame, ram, nut and screw, iron ball, handle, guideway, punch, and die. The frame of the machine is rigid “C” shaped casting. The typical shape of the frame leaves the front open which facilitates the feeding of the sheet metal below the ram from the side of the machine.

    The two heavy cast iron balls are mounted at the two ends of the arm which is bolted to a screw. So that when the handle is turned it causes the screw to rotate within the nut. The ram moves up and down in slides provided at the extension of the frame.

    The punch and the die constitute the press tool, the punch being the upper member is fixed to the lower end of the ram and the die which is the lower member of the press tool is fixed on a plate on the table, known as a bolster.

    The sheet metal to be formed is placed between the punch and the die. The press is operated by a sharp, partial revolution of the arm by pulling the handle and the kinetic energy is stored up in the two heavy balls mounted on the arm.

    Power Press

    Power Press machine

    This is a widely used type of press machine in the workshop. The constructional feature of a power press is almost similar to the hand press, the only difference being, that the ram instead of driven by hand is driven by power.

    The power press is characterized as mechanical or hydraulic according to the type of working mechanism used to transmit power to the ram.

    The figure illustrates a power press driven by a crank and connecting rod mechanism. The punch is fitted on the end of the ram and the die is attached to the bolster plate. The flywheel mounted at the end of the crankshaft stores up the energy for maintaining a constant downward speed of the ram when the sheet metal is pressed between the punch and the die.

    Classification based on the design of the frame

    Gap Press

    Types of press machine

    The gap press illustrated in the figure has a gap-like opening in the frame for feeding the sheet metal from one side of the press. The frame is attached to the base and provides a rigid construction.

    Inclined Press

    The inclined press illustrated in the figure is the most common type of press used in industry.

    The identifying characteristic of the inclined press is its ability to tilt back on its base, permitting the scrap or finished products to be discharged from the die by gravity without the aid of any type of handling mechanism. The press is not as rigid as a gap press due to its construction.

    Adjustable bed Press

    The adjustable bed press illustrated in the figure has a mechanical arrangement for raising or lowering the table on which the die is fitted.

    This enables the setting of different sizes of work and dies on the machine. The press is not as rigid as the other types.

    Horn Press

    Horn Press

    The horn press is illustrated in the figure. It has a cylindrical horn-like projection from the machine frame, which serves as the die support. The horns may be interchanged for the different sizes of work. The press is intended for the cylindrical workpiece.

    Straight Side Press

    The straight-side press is illustrated in the figure. This press machine has two vertical rigid frames. These are mounted on two sides of the base which are intended for absorbing critical load exerted by the ram.

    The machine is suitable for heavy work, but the sheet metal cannot be fed from the side due to the presence of side frames.

    Pillar Press

    The pillar press is illustrated in the figure. It is a hydraulic press having four pillars mounted on the base. The pillars support and guide the ram.

    That’s It

    Thanks for reading. If you made it to the end let us know what you think about this post in the comments. If you find the “press and types of press machine” article share it with your friend.

    Download Pdf of this article


    Read also: Lathe machine the easiest guide.

    About Saif M

    Saif M. is a Mechanical Engineer by profession. He completed his engineering studies in 2014 and is currently working in a large firm as Mechanical Engineer. He is also an author and editor at www.theengineerspost.com

    4 thoughts on “Press Machine and Types of Press Machine”

    Leave a Comment

    This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.