Introduction to Press Machine
In this article, you will learn about what is press and the different types of press machine used in workshops.
Press machine is a metal forming machine tool. Which is designed to form or cut metal by applying mechanical force or pressure. With the help of a press machine, you can form metal in any desired shape without removal of chips. The presses are exclusively intended for mass production work.
The main advantage of using these types of machine is that they are the fastest and most efficient way to form any sheet metal into the finished product.
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Types of Press Machine
The classification of different types of press machine are given below:
- Classification based on the source of power
- Hand press or ball press or fly press
- Power Press
- Classification based on the design of the frame
- Straight side
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Classification based on the source of power
Hand press or Ball press or Fly press
This type of press machine is the most simple of all presses and is operated by hand. The working details of the fly press machine are shown in the image below.
The main parts of the hand press machines are a frame, ram, nut and screw, iron ball, handle, guideway, punch, and die. The frame of the machine is rigid “C” shaped casting. The typical shape of the frame leaves the front open which facilitates the feeding of the sheet metal below the ram from the side of the machine.
The two heavy cast iron balls are mounted at the two ends of the arm which is bolted to screw. So that when the handle is turned it causes the screw to rotate within the nut. The ram moves up and down in slides provided at the extension of the frame.
The punch and the die constitute the press tool, the punch being the upper member is fixed to the lower end of the ram and the die which is the lower member of the press tool is fixed on a plate on the table, known as a bolster.
The sheet metal to be formed is placed between the punch and the die. The press is operated by a sharp, partial revolution of the arm by pulling the handle and the kinetic energy is stored up in the two heavy balls mounted on the arm.
This is widely used types of press machine in the workshop. The constructional feature of a power press is almost similar to the hand press, the only difference being, the ram instead of driven by hand is driven by power.
The power press is characterized as mechanical or hydraulic according to the type of working mechanism used to transmit power to the ram.
The figure illustrates a power press driven by a crank and connecting rod mechanism. The punch is fitted on the end of the ram and the die is attached on the bolster plate. The flywheel mounted at the end of the crankshaft stores up the energy for maintaining a constant downward speed of the ram when the sheet metal is pressed between the punch and the die.
Classification based on the design of the frame
The gap press illustrated in the figure has a gap like opening in the frame for feeding the sheet metal from one side of the press. The frame is attached with the base and provides a rigid construction.
The inclined press illustrated in the figure is the most common type of press used in industry. The identifying characteristic of the inclined press is its ability to tilt back on its base, permitting the scrap or finished products to be discharged from the die by gravity without the aid of any type of handling mechanism. The press is not so rigid as a gap press due to its construction.
Adjustable bed Press
The adjustable bed press illustrated in the figure has the mechanical arrangement for raising or lowering the table on which the die is fitted. This enables the setting of different sizes of work and dies on the machine. The press is not so rigid as the other types.
The horn press illustrated in the figure. It has a cylindrical horn like projection from the machine frame, which serves as the die support. The horns may be interchanged for the different sizes of work. The press is intended for the cylindrical workpiece.
Straight Side Press
The straight side press illustrated in the figure. This press machine has two vertical rigid frames. These are mounted on two sides of the base which are intended for absorbing critical load exerted by the ram. The machine is suitable for heavy work, but due to the presence of side frames, the sheet metal cannot be fed from the side.
The pillar press illustrated in the figure. It is a hydraulic press having four pillars mounted on the base. The pillars support and guide the ram.
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