In this article, you’ll learn what is rivet and riveted joint, how to use rivets, methods, types of rivets, applications, advantages, and disadvantages. And also you can download the pdf file of this article at the end.
Rivets and types
What is rivet and riveted joint?
The riveted joint is a permanent joint cause rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. A rivet is a cylindrical shaft that has a head on one end and the opposite end known as a tail.
Rivets are generally made of mild steel but at times they are also made of brass, copper, and aluminum, etc. Used in structures, bridges, sheet metal operations, ships, and in many industries.
Parts of a Rivet
Following are the parts of a Rivet:
- Shank and Body
The upper-most part of rivet is called “head”. These are made of different type according to different jobs.
2. Shank and Body
The part below rivet is called shank or body. This is round in shape.
Part below its centre is called tail. It is somewhat tapered. It is inserted into holes of two plates and head is made by beating their tail. The length of tail is ¼ D. A rivet is known by its roundness, length and shape of head.
Types of Rivets
Following are the different types of Rivets:
- Snap head or cup head rivets
- Pan head rivets
- Conical head rivets
- Countersunk head rivets
- Flathead rivets
- Buffercated head rivet
- Hollow head rivets.
1. Snap head or cup head rivets
Rivets with this kind of heads are used most of all. This type of rivets is shown in the figure. The head is of a semi-circle in shape. Its diameter is 1.6D and its height is 0.7D. The joints of this rivet are very strong. That is why it is widely used in bridges made of iron material.
2. Pan head rivets
In heavy engineering, pan head rivets are used. These have been shown in the figure. The height of its head is 0.7D and its diameter is 1.6D. The upper portion of the rivet head is flat and taper. Small diameter of the head is equal to the diameter of the rivet.
3. Conical Head Rivet
The conical head rivet is shown in the figure. The conical shape is given is used for light jobs. A conical shape is given to the head by a hammer. The diameter of its head is 0.75D and the height of its head is 2D.
4. Counter Sunk Head Rivet
At places where it is necessary to keep the surface plane even after fixing a rivet, this type of rivets is used. The diameter of its head is 1.5D, taper idle is 0.5D and taper angle is 60. There are three kinds as shown in the figure.
5. Flat Head Rivet
For small and light jobs o sheet metal, flat head rivets are used. These are generally used in non-ferrous metals and thin sheets. Its head is flat. The diameter of its head is 2D and its height is 0.33D. This rivet is shown in the figure.
6. Buffercated Rivet
These types of rivets are different from other rivets. These are used for joining chains etc. in place of pins.
7. Hollow Rivet
Hollow rivets used where a part of the machine moves and it is also necessary to keep this part attached to the machine.
Types of Riveted Joints
Following are the main types of riveted joint:
- Lap joint
- Butt joint
- Single riveted joint
- Double or Chain riveted joint
- Chain riveted joint
- Zig zag riveted joint
- Diamond riveted joint
1. Lap Joint
In this type of riveted joint, the ends that fulfill the operation of both elements are such that their surface overlaps slightly. Then the riveting is done through the coincidence hole.
2. Butt Joint
In this type of riveted joint, two elements are joined in a straight line from edge to edge. The clamping is built using an outer casing plate, it is then riveted upward through parallel drilled holes.
A butt joint can either use a cover plate or a couple of them. The butt joints have a cover casing, called a single cover butt joint.
In places where hardness and strength are required, two cover plates are normally included, which are then riveted from the upper and lower surfaces of the elements. This is known as the double cover butt joint.
In addition to the above types, riveted joints can be listed in the following way, it depends on their pouring method:
3. Single Riveted Joints
In this type of riveted joint, more than one rivet is fixed along a line, usually in a lap joint, while rows in a butt joint can be visible from both the upper and lower surfaces.
4. Double Riveted Joint
It is also called a double butt joint, when two rows of rivets are involved above a joint or when two rows of rivets are used from both the top and bottom in a butt joint.
5. Chain Riveted Joint
In this joint, the adjusted rows of rivets may be opposite each other as opposed to straight lines.
6. Zig-zag Riveted Joint
Unlike the above types, In the zig-zag riveted joint, the lines here can be staggered and do not complement each other.
7. Diamond Riveted Joint
As you have seen in the above figure, here the rivets are arranged in rows that are wide at the ends of the butt and taper at opposite sides which give the diamond shape of considerable size. Usually, this type of joint will be found in the butt joints.
Methods of Riveting
Riveting is carried out with the help of dies and backup dies that place a rivet in between them and, by the use of force, the rivet is set into parts to join.
The equal and opposite force distorts the rivet and the tail section of the rivet is turned to head downwards, so the entire rivet sits on the plates. In this process, the rivet’s tail is transformed into a ‘head’ sometimes called a ‘shop head’.
To join the riveting parts, they are drilled with the help of a drilling machine. Clearance is noted when riveting because the diameter of the rivet increases to some extent by pressing.
Normally clearance is considered as per the following:
- If the diameter of the rivet is, d = 12 to 24 mm, then Clearance is taken as, C = 1.5 mm
- If the diameter of the rivet is, d = 24 to 48 mm, then Clearance is taken as, C = 2 mm
Application of Rivet Joints
Following are the application of rivet joints:
- Rivet joints are applicable in structure members and also used in bridge parts to handle the strong loads.
- Rivets are also very useful in Railway wagons and coaches.
- The rivet joints are applied in Boiler shells.
- Rivets are also used in heavy vehicles like buses and trucks.
Advantages of Rivet joints
Following are the advantages of rivet joints:
- The fabrication cost of the riveting process is cheaper.
- Dissimilar metals can also be added, even non-metallic joints are also done with riveted joints.
- The riveting process requires low maintenance cost.
- The operation of the riveting process is easy.
Disadvantages of Rivet Joints
Following are the disadvantages of rivet joints:
- It requires skilled workers to do the riveting process.
- Leakage can be a problem for these types of joints but is overcome by special techniques.
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